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Floral closure in response to temperature and pollination in Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), an alpine perennial in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
He, YP; Duan, YW; Liu, JQ; Smith, WK
2005-11-01
Source PublicationPLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION
Volume256Issue:1-4Pages:17-33
SubtypeArticle
AbstractFloral closure may be induced by pollination and various other factors, but is rarely studied comprehensively. Different kinds of floral closure should have various effects on reproductive fitness of plants. Two contrasting types of floral closure were observed in the flowers of Gentiana straminea Maxim. in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The first type occurred prior to pollination during both gender phases, in response mainly to decreasing air temperatures. Flowers closed when decreasing temperatures approached 20 degrees C and subsequently began to reopen the following day during mid-morning when air temperatures warmed to approximately 13-15 degrees C. This kind of floral closure can protect pollen grains on either stamens or stigmas, increasing fitness of both male and female. Following pollination, permanent floral closure occurred, although there was a delay between the dates of pollination and permanent closure, during which flowers continued to show temporary closure in response to low temperature episodes. The time required for permanent, pollination-induced closure varied according to the age of the gender phase, including a prolonged time before closure if pollination occurred early in the female phase. The retaining of permanent closed flowers increased both approaching (to inflorescences) and visiting (to unpollinated flowers) frequencies of individual plants when with fewer open flowers and the persisting corolla is further beneficial for seed sets of these pollinated flowers. Thus, two separate types of floral closure, one in response to environmental cues and the other in response to the age of each gender stage, appeared to have a strong influence on reproductive fitness in this species. These results revealed a different adaptive strategy of alpine plants in the sexual reproduction assurance in addition to the well-known elevated floral longevity, dominant role of more effective pollinators and increased reproduction allocation in the arid habitats.; Floral closure may be induced by pollination and various other factors, but is rarely studied comprehensively. Different kinds of floral closure should have various effects on reproductive fitness of plants. Two contrasting types of floral closure were observed in the flowers of Gentiana straminea Maxim. in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The first type occurred prior to pollination during both gender phases, in response mainly to decreasing air temperatures. Flowers closed when decreasing temperatures approached 20 degrees C and subsequently began to reopen the following day during mid-morning when air temperatures warmed to approximately 13-15 degrees C. This kind of floral closure can protect pollen grains on either stamens or stigmas, increasing fitness of both male and female. Following pollination, permanent floral closure occurred, although there was a delay between the dates of pollination and permanent closure, during which flowers continued to show temporary closure in response to low temperature episodes. The time required for permanent, pollination-induced closure varied according to the age of the gender phase, including a prolonged time before closure if pollination occurred early in the female phase. The retaining of permanent closed flowers increased both approaching (to inflorescences) and visiting (to unpollinated flowers) frequencies of individual plants when with fewer open flowers and the persisting corolla is further beneficial for seed sets of these pollinated flowers. Thus, two separate types of floral closure, one in response to environmental cues and the other in response to the age of each gender stage, appeared to have a strong influence on reproductive fitness in this species. These results revealed a different adaptive strategy of alpine plants in the sexual reproduction assurance in addition to the well-known elevated floral longevity, dominant role of more effective pollinators and increased reproduction allocation in the arid habitats.
KeywordFloral Closure Temperature Pollination Gender Phase Fitness Seed Set
WOS HeadingsScience & Technology ; Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Subject Area植物学
WOS KeywordREPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS ; PISTILLATE PHASES ; FLOWER LONGEVITY ; COLOR-CHANGE ; ECOLOGY ; DURATION ; CAMPANULACEAE ; BALSAMINACEAE ; ALLOCATION ; EVOLUTION
Indexed BySCI
Language英语
WOS Research AreaPlant Sciences ; Evolutionary Biology
WOS SubjectPlant Sciences ; Evolutionary Biology
WOS IDWOS:000234314100002
Citation statistics
Cited Times:17[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://210.75.249.4/handle/363003/1349
Collection中国科学院西北高原生物研究所
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, NW Inst Plateau Biol, Lab Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Biol Evolut & Adaptat, Xining 180001, Peoples R China
2.Lanzhou Univ, Key Lab Arid & Grassland Ecol, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China
3.Wake Forest Univ, Dept Biol, Winston Salem, NC 27109 USA
4.Chinese Acad Sci, Grad Sch, Beijing, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
He, YP,Duan, YW,Liu, JQ,et al. Floral closure in response to temperature and pollination in Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), an alpine perennial in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau[J]. PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION,2005,256(1-4):17-33.
APA He, YP,Duan, YW,Liu, JQ,&Smith, WK.(2005).Floral closure in response to temperature and pollination in Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), an alpine perennial in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION,256(1-4),17-33.
MLA He, YP,et al."Floral closure in response to temperature and pollination in Gentiana straminea Maxim. (Gentianaceae), an alpine perennial in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau".PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION 256.1-4(2005):17-33.
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